Road transport means transportation of goods and personnel from one place to the other on roads. Road is a route between two destinations, which has been either paved or worked on to enable transportation by way of motorised and non-motorised carriages. There are many advantages of road transport in comparison to other means of transport. The investment required in road transport is very less compared to other modes of transport such as railways and air transport. The cost of construction, operating cost and maintaining roads is cheaper than that of the railways.
Road transport can be classified as transporting either goods and materials or transporting people. The major advantage of road transport is that it can enable door-to-door delivery of goods and materials and can provide a very cost-effective means of cartage, loading and unloading. Sometimes road transport is the only way for carrying goods and people to and from rural areas which are not catered to by rail, water or air transport. Delivery of goods between cities, towns and small villages is made possible only through road transport. However, in spite of various merits, road transport has some major limitations. For instance, there are more chances of accidents and breakdowns in case of road transport. So, motor transport is not as safe as other means of transport. Road transport is also quite less organised in comparison with other modes. It is irregular and undependable. Rates for road transportation are also unstable and unequal, while the speed in road transport is slow and limited, which is a major drawback. Transporting bulky goods over long distances is also unsuitable and costly. In modern days, road transport has a serious negative impact on the environment. Building roads requires melting of tar or formulation of concrete, which may harm the associated environment. Since roads have been a major enabler of motorised transport, these vehicles also emit a lot of pollution in the form of Nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and various harmful air pollutants, including benzene, which have an adverse respiratory health effects and a serious threat to global warming. While improvisation of roads is a serious topic of research, road transport of the future includes aspects like solar panel roads and cars where solar cells have replaced asphalt or tar, and there are vehicles with electric motors reducing emission. Road transport of the future aims to work on these negativities and turn them around.
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